'Cholesterol levels Masai to Tokelau' credits

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Text: 'Masai male 130-135 mg/dl, female 145 to 170 mg/dl higher with age. LDL/HDL ratio about 2.'
from: Chris Masterjohn on cholesterol and heart disease (part 2) "In any case, the Masai have very low cholesterol levels, some of the lowest in the world and a number of groups had studied them in the 1960s and showed that the men tended to have cholesterol levels between 130-135 mg/dl, which is by our standards we would say that’s quite low. The women had somewhat higher cholesterol levels of about 145, and these would tend to rise with age maybe to 170 mg/dl in their 40s and then drop off a little bit as they grew older. It also seemed to rise quite a bit in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, at least according to one study. Women who were in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy had their cholesterol levels go up to 205 mg/dl. But on the whole they had very low levels of cholesterol with a population mean of around 130-140, and their LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio was about 2. So that’s considered quite good, even by American standards. The medical establishment in our society would love the Masai because they seem to support the lipid hypothesis. They have very low or no rate of heart disease and they have very low cholesterol levels."

Text: 'Tokelau male 180 to 220 mg/dl high healthy cholesterol' 'Tropical populations male 180 to 220 mg/dl, female 200 to 245 mg/dl higher with age. LDL/HDL ratios between 2 and 4.' 'Traditional people on traditional diets free from heart disease.'
from: RHR: Chris Masterjohn on Cholesterol and Heart Disease (Part 3) "And we looked at two groups in particular: the Masai and the Kitavans, who have been well studied and shown to be free of heart disease; and we used them to define basically the lower and upper limits of blood cholesterol. And what we see is the Masai have pretty low cholesterol levels, but the Kitavans, who are eating a diet based on fish, coconut, starches, and so on, the men tend to have cholesterol levels around 180, the women tend to have cholesterol levels around 200 to 210, and these tend to increase with age. So, in their 40s and 50s, the women might have cholesterol around 250. In general, the LDL/HDL ratios are between 2 and 4 in these tropical populations. And there are some other populations that have not been studied quite as well but also seem to be free of heart disease, like Tokelau, where the consumption of coconut is much higher, and their cholesterol levels in the case of the men increase from about 180 to 220 with age and in the women tend to increase from about 200 to 245 with age. So, around 250 total cholesterol is where we might set the upper limit of what seems to be normal, according to these traditional populations eating traditional diets that are free of heart disease."

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1st image: Masai - Serengeti
2nd image: Tokelau Warriors
3rd image: Pensive

smilFile by Jose Ramirez 2013